The sinuses are air-filled chambers within the bone on both sides of the face and head. The frontal sinuses sit over the eyebrows. The ethmoid sinuses sit between eyes on both side and the nose in the middle. The maxillary sinuses sit beneath the cheeks under the eyes. The sphenoid sinuses sit the furthest back, behind the ethmoid sinuses and the eyes, near the center of the head.
These sinuses can become swollen and filled with mucus with infection or allergy. When completely clogged, these sinuses can cause pressure and pain. Frontal sinusitis causes headaches and forehead pressure. Ethmoid sinusitis can cause eye pressure and pain between the eyes. Maxillary sinusitis cause cheek and facial pressure. This is often confused with dental pain. Sphenoid sinusitis can cause headache pain on top of the head or in the back of the head. Severe sinusitis can lead to fevers. Worst case infections can lead to complications involving the eye (pain, blurred vision, double vision, etc) and the brain (meningitis, abscess, etc.).
Home treatments include saline sinus rinses, allergy medications, nasal steroids, oral antibiotics, and oral steroids. Surgical treatments include in-office balloon sinuplasty or formal sinus surgery with image-guidance in the operating room.